According to internationally accepted criteria, the indications for obesity surgery are BMI > 40 kg/m2 or BMI>35 with pronounced co-morbidities. It also requires several failed non-surgical attempts at weight reduction under the guidance of a physician over a period of one year and the absence of surgical contraindication or concomitant disease. Nevertheless, limits to the indication for surgery continue to be changing.
Anti-obesity surgery works through simple principles that affect Ingestion, Assimilation & Storage, and Desire to ingest. Currently, the widely performed surgical procedures are Sleeve Gastrectomy, Gastric Bypass, and Mini Gastric bypass. They help in the resolution of up to 90% of excess weight and almost similar resolution of co-morbidities like diabetes, hypertension, cholesterol, sleep apnoea, infertility, etc making it the guaranteed and most successful modality so far for morbid obesity.
Diabetes being a medical disease was traditionally treated by diet and exercise with mild oral medicines. The disease keeps on progressing in most people with ongoing complications on many organs in the body. It is associated with high cholesterol levels, high blood pressure, fatty liver disease, obesity, and polycystic ovary disease causing the Metabolic Syndrome and also kidney failures, heart attacks, eye problems including blindness, nerve diseases, etc. Diabetic surgery is surgery for the cure of diabetes associated with or without obesity.